Session 1: Examining Our Christian Heritage 1 Assignments due the first class session


Anaheim District Ministerial Training Center

Examining Our Christian Heritage 1

Session 1 Assignments due the first class session.
Email you response paragraphs to mboswith@hbcc.org the Sunday before each class session no later than 5PM.

Location:
            Huntington Beach Community Church of the Nazarene
            8101 Slater Ave Huntington Beach CA 92683

Course Dates:
COMPLETE SESSION 1 READING AND WRITING BEFORE FIRST CLASS MEETING.
Email your paragraphs to mboswith@hbcc.org the Sunday no later than 5PM before each class session.
            Familiarize yourself with what is meant by Academic Honesty
            Familiarize yourself with how to write a paragraph

OUTLINE OF THE COURSE
All Assignments are due before the beginning of each session. That includes Session 1—you have work to do in order to properly prepare for the first class session.
Email your response paragraphs to mboswith@hbcc.org the Sunday no later than 5PM before each class session.

Lesson 1 Intro to the Class and to History of Christianity 1
            Unit 1: Early Church (to 600)
Lesson 2: The Spread of Christianity
The Spread of Christianity Westward
The Spread of Christianity to the East
The Apostolic Fathers
Lesson 3: Early Church Doctrine and Persecution
Early Theologians
Early Church Persecution and Final Toleration
Gnosticism and Other Heresies
Lesson 4: Development of the Canon and Creeds
Development of the Cannon
Reason and Revelation: Early Christian Apologetics
The First Five Councils
Lesson 5: Ministry and Expansion of the Early Church
Ministry in the Early Church
Monasticism in the Early Church
The Expansion of the Church in Western Europe
Lesson 6: The Formation of the Papacy and Eastern Christianity
Augustine: Father of Western Theology
The Rise of the Papacy
The Rise of Eastern Christianity

Unit 2: Early Middle Ages (600-1000)
Lesson 7: Early Middle Ages .
 Church and Ministry in the Early Middle Ages
The Spread of Christianity
Expansion Eastward

Unit 3: High Middle Ages (1000-1300)
Lesson 8: Interaction of Church and Culture
Reason and Revelation: Scholasticism
The Crusades
Church and the Papacy
Lesson 9: Tensions Within the Church
The Schism: East and West Go Their Separate Ways
Monasticism and Spirituality
Lesson 10: The Rise of Scholarship
The Dominicans and Thomas Aquinas
The Rise of the Universities
Biblical Interpretation
Lesson 11: The Gospel and Culture Interact—East and West
Expansion of the Church in Europe
Inquisition: An Issue of Gospel and Culture
The Catholic Church in China and the Mongol Empire

Unit 4: Late Middle Ages (1300-1500)
Lesson 12: Late Middle Ages
Ministry and Worship
Church and State
Theology, Devotion, and Reform

Instructor:
            Mike Boswith             mboswith@hbcc.org   714-403-5691

Psy.D., American Behavioral Studies Institute, 2000; MA (Theology), Trevecca Nazarene University, 1989; BA (Religious Studies), Trevecca Nazarene University, 1985; AS (Physical Science), University of the State of New York Regents, 1982. Pastor, Church of the Nazarene, 1988-Present [Huntington Beach Community, Buena Park Crescent Ave, Victoria TX First], Associate Pastor, Church of the Nazarene 1985-1988 [Memphis Calvary]. United States Navy, 1976-1983

REQUIRED TEXT:
Bruce Shelley, Church History in Plain Language Fourth Edition Paperback – December 10, 2013

Examining Our Christian Heritage 1 Student Guide

Academic honesty
Academic honesty boils down to three simple but powerful principles:
 • When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it.
• When you rely on someone else’s work, you cite it. When you use their words, you quote them openly and accurately, and you cite them, too.
• When you present research materials, you present them fairly and truthfully. That’s true whether the research involves data, documents, or the writings of other scholars.
While it is often quipped that “it is better to apologize afterward than ask for permission before,” this does not hold in academia.


How to Write a Good Paragraph: A Step-by-Step Guide
Writing well composed academic paragraphs can be tricky. The following is a guide on how to draft, expand, refine, and explain your ideas so that you write clear, well-developed paragraphs and discussion posts:
Here is the short answer. Your first sentence should tell me what you are going to tell me. The second to fourth sentences you tell me what you said you would tell me. In the last sentence, you tell me what you told me.  If that isn’t clear read on------
Text Box: Step 1: Decide the Topic of Your Paragraph

Before you can begin writing, you need to know what you are writing about. First, look at the writing prompt or assignment topic. As you look at the prompt, note any key terms or repeated phrases because you will want to use those words in your response. Then ask yourself:
·         On what topic am I supposed to be writing?
·         What do I know about this topic already?
·         If I don’t know how to respond to this assignment, where can I go to find some answers?
·         What does this assignment mean to me? How do I relate to it?

After looking at the prompt and doing some additional reading and research, you should better understand your topic and what you need to discuss.
Text Box: Step 2: Develop a Topic Sentence

Before writing a paragraph, it is important to think first about the topic and then what you want to say about
the topic. Most often, the topic is easy, but the question then turns to what you want to say about the topic. This concept is sometimes called the controlling idea.
Strong paragraphs are typically about one main idea or topic, which is often explicitly stated in a topic sentence. Good topic sentences should always contain both (1) a topic and (2) a controlling idea.
The topic – The main subject matter or idea covered in the paragraph.
The controlling idea – This idea focuses on the topic by providing direction to the composition.

Read the following topic sentences. They all contain a topic (in orange) and a controlling idea (in purple). When your paragraphs contain a clearly stated topic sentence such as one of the following, your reader will know what to expect and, therefore, understand your ideas better.

Examples of topic sentences:
·         People can avoid plagiarizing by taking certain precautions.
·         There are several advantages to online education.

·         Effective leadership requires specific qualities that anyone can develop.

Text Box: Step 3: Demonstrate Your Point

After stating your topic sentence, you need to provide information to prove, illustrate, clarify, and/or
exemplify your point.

Ask yourself:
·    What examples can I use to support my point?
·    What information can I provide to help clarify my thoughts?
·    How can I support my point with specific data, experiences, or other factual material?
·    What information does the reader need to know in order to see my point?

Here is a list of the kinds of information you can add to your paragraph:
·         Facts, details, reasons, examples
·         Information from the readings or class discussions
·         Paraphrases or short quotations
·         Statistics, polls, percentages, data from research studies
·         Personal experience, stories, anecdotes, examples from your life

Sometimes, adding transitional or introductory phrases like: for example, for instance, first, second, or last can help guide the reader. Also, make sure you are citing your sources appropriately.
Text Box: Step 4: Give Your Paragraph Meaning

After you have given the reader enough information to see and understand your point, you need to explain why this information is relevant, meaningful, or interesting.
Ask yourself:
·    What does the provided information mean?
·    How does it relate to your overall point, argument, or thesis?
·    Why is this information important/significant/meaningful?
·    How does this information relate to the assignment or course I am taking?
Text Box: Step 5: Conclude

After illustrating your point with relevant information, add a concluding sentence. Concluding sentences link one paragraph to the next and provide another device for helping you ensure your paragraph is unified. While not all paragraphs include a concluding sentence, you should always consider whether one is appropriate. Concluding sentences have two crucial roles in paragraph writing:
First, they draw together the information you have presented to elaborate your controlling idea by:
·         Summarizing the point(s) you have made.
·         Repeating words or phrases from the topic sentence.
·         Using linking words that indicate that conclusions are being drawn (e.g., therefore, thus, resulting).

Second, they often link the current paragraph to the following paragraph. They may anticipate the topic sentence of the next paragraph by:
·         Introducing a word/phrase or new concept which will then be picked up in the topic sentence of the next paragraph.
·         Using words or phrases that point ahead (e.g., the following, another, other).
Text Box: Step 6: Look Over and Proofread

The last step in good paragraph writing is proofreading and revision. Before you submit your writing, look
over your work at least one more time. Try reading your paragraph out loud to make sure it makes sense. Also, ask yourself these questions:
·         Does my paragraph answer the prompt and support my thesis?
·         Does it make sense? Does it use the appropriate academic voice?

Two types of Paragraphs for this course: Big Idea and Personal Opinion
a. Based on your reading: A “big idea” is what you think the author would want you to walk away with regarding what he/she wrote. This is not an exercise in listing the subtitles in the chapter. Narrow down the author’s presentation into one important thought, or “big idea.” Then write a short paragraph to express that big idea.

            It may be helpful to imagine that you are responsible for teaching the material in the assigned text. What would you deem the most important concepts of the chapter to be? One would assume that your choice will differ from your cohorts.

            b. Personal Opinion Paragraph is an expression of your own ideas in answer
            to questions  you will find in your homework assignments.

           Rubric: 100 points
                        Topic sentence  20 pts
                        Three to Five supporting sentences     20 pts
                        Concluding sentence   20 pts
                        Content           40pts            

            Papers are to be Times New Roman, Font 14 double spaced.

Paragraph Rubric


Name: ________________________________ Date: ______________ #________

Type/Title ____________________________________

Elements Needed                                                       Points Possible      Points Earned

Topic Sentence                                                                        20                                __________
            (Punctuated correctly)
Supporting Sentences                                                             20                                __________
             (Punctuated correctly)          
Content                                                                                   40                                __________
            (Punctuated correctly)
Closing Sentence                                                                    20                                __________
            (Punctuated correctly)
Total Points Earned                                                                                                    __________




Session 1 Introduction to the History of Christianity

Introduction to lesson:
            What is church history? While church history deals with the history of faith and faithful Christians, it relies upon historical methods.

Session Objectives
• understand the goals and purposes of the historical study of Christianity

• discuss church history’s relevance to their Ministries

• articulate how a Wesleyan perspective upon church history might be
different from others

Assignments to be done before class
Email your response paragraphs to mboswith@hbcc.org by the Sunday before the class session.
A. Read: Shelley, Church History in Plain Language, Prologue
Write a Big Idea paragraph from your reading of Shelly. [A big idea paragraph is what you consider to be the most important idea in the Shelly reading]

B. Read the following articles and give a one paragraph answer to the question asked.
           
            1. A Wesleyan Perspective on Church History
                        What is the Wesleyan perspective on Church History?
2. The Historical Method
            Why is the study of church history relevant to my ministry?

C. Write in your journal. Reflect on and respond to the following:  
            AUGUSTINE’S CONFESSIONS, READING `1


A Wesleyan Perspective on Church History

History is crucial to Christians. The Bible is the history of salvation. Through it, we come to understand how God works. He created all that is in time. He established His covenants with Abraham and the Hebrews in history. In the “fullness of time” God gave His only Son for the redemption of the world. Christ was incarnated in history.

 God works to save us in and through history, not around or in spite of it. Based on the Bible’s descriptions of God’s acts, Christianity possesses a chronological or linear understanding of time. God’s great acts were and are historical. He interacts with human beings in particular contexts, circumstances, and situations. At the same time, God works toward goals and ideals.

Historians can only speak of the human response to God, not about God’s doing. This is because we are not privy, as the inspired prophets and apostles were, to God’s specific acts. Because evangelicals hold the Bible to possess a higher authority, they cannot say with the same certainty as they can about God’s acts among the Israelites or in Christ, “this is how God acted” when it comes to, for instance, the councils or the Reformation.

History answers many of the questions as to why things are as they are; why things are done as they are done; what the original purposes and meanings were for a practice or a belief. History brings a form of self-knowledge to the Church and to individuals.

Church history helps to define what has been considered biblical and essential to faith, and what has been considered either nonorthodox or nonessential to faith. Using church history, persons are better able to assess present-day trends.

For accuracy and objectivity, church history must be built upon primary sources. These are materials created geographically and chronologically near the events or persons being described. Though history aims to tell a story, to have a plot, it is based firmly upon sources. Historians interpret and organize sources, which are themselves interpretations of the events being described. Though history cannot be considered objective in the same way as the natural sciences, its aim is to be as accurate as possible, based on the sources at hand, and to have no hidden agendas or preconceived notions about the course of events. Historians, nevertheless, have to decide on relations between events. These are beyond the comprehension of their sources. Historians have to weigh the evidence and make conclusions.

Though there are heroes in church history, its purpose is to understand the past, not to venerate ancestors. Church historians do not fear the truth being told about people and events in the past.

The church historian can only describe the outward response to, not the inner workings of the human interaction with the divine. Some, even in the Church, responded to the Holy Spirit’s promptings selfishly and sinfully. Students of church history learn from the mistakes as well as the successes of the past. At the same time, there is much good to be told. The Church has helped men and women cope with everyday existence and has positively influenced society. The Church is less “incarnate” than Christ. It is fully human, and not in its earthly state “fully divine.”

Church historians look for interrelationships between religious ideas and behavior. They look for ways in which Christianity has helped shape family life, political structures, moral codes, and economic systems, and look, in turn, to how each of these aspects of society influenced Christianity. When church historians analyze ideas, they want to see the ideas in their cultural and historical context. Church history cannot be seen apart from “secular” world history.

Church history reveals how faith has been applied in various places at various times. Though there were historians who interpreted religion, including Christianity, as being in decline, victim to rationalism and secularism, in truth Christianity has ebbed and flowed, sometimes growing, sometimes receding. Neither its advance nor its decline has been historically inevitable. Just when the demise of Christianity is announced, some new popular religious movement comes along to claim the faith of the masses.

Christianity has been influenced by culture, but just as great, Christianity, like any religion, has greatly influenced culture. If Christianity has at times sanctioned slavery and racial prejudice, it also has defended women and produced antislavery and other social reforms. Church history illuminates the processes by which Christianity interrelates to culture and how it functions in culture.

 Refer to Resource 1-1 in the Student Guide.
The historical method is congenial to the Wesleyan’s understanding that God works dynamically, by the gentle promptings of grace, and with human response—rather than by manipulation. The voluntary cooperation of human beings to God’s intentions is the way in which God interacts with creation. Wesleyans possess a philosophy of history that sees God as the Great Persuader. Wesleyan historians will note the many human and even environmental variables and contingent factors that go into the making of history, and not ascribe all that has been solely to God.

The Wesleyan theological framework puts emphasis on the human response to God. There is a dynamic interrelationship between the graciously given human freedom to respond to God’s luring and persuading. With freedom, God has granted an open-endedness to the events of history. For Wesleyan historians, it is not necessary to understand culture as a dichotomy of sacred and secular. The Wesleyan concepts of the preveniency and universality of grace erase the difference.

 By showing how Christians in the past have responded to all sorts of issues and problems, church history allows ministers and laypeople to find a broader basis or context for making decisions and sound judgments. It helps Christians to have stronger rationale for defining and confronting theological and moral errors. It enables Christians to separate what is really essential to faith from what is temporal and transient.

The Historical Method
The historical method is congenial to the Wesleyan’s understanding that God works dynamically, by the gentle promptings of grace, and with human response—rather than by manipulation. The voluntary cooperation of human beings to God’s intentions is the way in which God interacts with creation. Wesleyans possess a philosophy of history that sees God as the great Persuader. Wesleyan historians will note the many human and even environmental variables and contingent factors that go into the making of history, and not ascribe all that has been solely to God.

The Wesleyan theological framework puts emphasis on the human response to God. There is a dynamic interrelationship between the graciously given human freedom to respond to God’s luring and persuading. With freedom, God has granted an open-endedness to the events of history. For Wesleyan historians, it is not necessary to understand culture as a dichotomy of sacred and secular. The Wesleyan concepts of the preveniency and universality of grace erase the  difference.

AUGUSTINE’S CONFESSIONS, READING 1

BOOK ONE
In God’s searching presence, Augustine undertakes to plumb the depths of his memory to trace the mysterious pilgrimage of grace that his life has been— and to praise God for His constant and omnipotent grace. In a mood of sustained prayer, he recalls what he can of his infancy, his learning to speak, and his childhood experiences in school. He concludes with a paean of grateful praise to God.

CHAPTER I
1. “You are great, O Lord, and greatly to be praised; great is your power, and infinite is your wisdom.” And man desires to praise you, for he is a part of your creation; he bears his mortality about with him and carries the evidence of his sin and the proof that you resist the proud. Still he desires to praise you, this man who is only a small part of your creation. You have prompted him, that he should delight to praise you, for you have made us for yourself and restless is our heart until it comes to rest in you. Grant me, O Lord, to know and understand whether first to invoke you or to praise you; whether first to know you or call upon you. But who can invoke you, knowing you not? For he who knows you not may invoke you as another than you are. It may be that we should invoke you in order that we may come to know you. But “how shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? Or how shall they believe without a preacher?” Now, “they shall praise the Lord who seek him,” for “those who seek shall find him,” and, finding him, shall praise him. I will seek you, O Lord, and call upon you. I call upon you, O Lord, in my faith that you have given me, which you have inspired in me through the humanity of your Son, and through the ministry of your preacher.

Home Work for Session 2
Email your response paragraphs to mboswith@hbcc.org by the Sunday by 5PM before the class session.

            A. Read Bruce L Shelley, Church History in Plain Language Chapter 1-3 and 8
            Write Big Idea paragraph concerning why you think Christians today do
            not follow Jewish customs.

            B. Read the following articles:
1. The Places The Apostles Evangelized
            2. The Spread of Christianity Westward.
            3. Growth of the Church in the Roman Empire
            4. The Growth of the Church in the West Outside of the Roman Empire
            5. The Spread of Christianity Eastward
6. Poignant features of Thomas’s work in India
7. Why the Phenomenal Spread of Christianity?
            8. Didache—

C. Be prepared to discuss the following from your study of the Didache:

            Chapters 1-4                What is expected of a child of Yahweh?
            Chapter 5                    What is the underlining cause of behaviors inconsistent
with discipleship?
            Chapter’s 6 and 11      How do you know you are dealing with a false prophet or
                                                            teacher?
            Chapter 7                    Why would fasting be a part of the baptism ritual?
Chapter 8                    What purpose is served by reciting the Lord’s Prayer 3
                                                times a day?
Chapter 9, 10 and 14
1. For what purpose does this liturgy serve?
                                                2. What is the main purpose of celebrating the Lord’s
                                                            Supper?
Chapters 12 and 13    What is the criteria for one who is worthy of support and one who is not?
Chapter 15                  What would speaking amiss about someone consist of?
Chapter 16                  What is the early churches understanding of suffering in the Last
Days?

D. Write in your journal. Reflect on and respond to the following:  
            AUGUSTINE’S CONFESSIONS, READING `2


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